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Full text of "Fish and Wildlife Management Report June 1, 1960"

No. 52 



June, 1960 




ONTARIO 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 
REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division af Fish and Wildlife 

(These reports are for Intra-Departmental Information and Not For Publication) 



Hon. J. W. Spooner 
Minister 



F. A. MacDougal 
Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 52 June, I960 



Page 

Woodland Caribou Project - July, 1959. 

- by D. W„ Simkin 1 

Sample Size to Find Hunter Successo - by R. Boultbee 10 

Report of the Meeting of the Technical Section, 

Mississippi Flyway Council, February 16-18, I960, 
Stuttgart, Arkansas. - by H. G. Lumsden 12 

Report on the Hunter Survey for the 1958-1959 Hunting 
Season In the Lake Simcoe District. 

- bv A. A. Wainio 18" 



Pheasant Hunt Statistics, 1959* Lindsay District. 

- by P. W. Swanson 34 

Waterfowl Caught In Muskrat Traps In Patricia West 
and Patricia Central 195$- 59 Season. 

- by D. W. Simkin 37 

The Purpose and Meaning of Enforcement. 

- by E. L. Skuce 45 

Lake Trout Spawning Survey, Hollow Lake, Parry Sound 
District, 1959. 

- by Wm. Ellerington and C. A. Rettie 51 

Trap-net Program on Crow (Kakagi) Lake, Kenora 

District, 1959. - by C. F. Schenk 55 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



WOODLAND CARIBOU PROJECT - JULY, 1959 

by 

D. W. Sirnkin 



Abstract 

The present provincial estimate of Woodland Caribou 
numbers of between 10,000 and 12,000 was believed to be 
far short of the estimated minimum carrying capacity of 
70,000 caribou for the Province. A factor other than 
winter food was apparently limiting their numbers. In 
order to learn something of the biology of the caribou 
a preliminary summer study was made in the former 
Woodland Caribou Crown Game Preserve from July 2 to 
July 27, 1959. This involved a study of the summer 
food habits, sex and age ratios, behaviour, calf 
mortality and range quality. Woody and herbaceous 
vegetation constituted a large proportion of the summer 
food with aspen, birch and pin cherry being the most 
important. Sub-climax ground lichens were utilized 
extensively by caribou during the summer. Tree lichens 
were also used when available. Twenty-one caribou were 
observed during the study and no group consisted of 
more than five animals. Islands were thought to play 
a role in the protection of caribou calves from preda- 
tors. Caribou are quite amphibious and often take to 
the water as a means of escape. Estimated speed when 
swimming was five-six m.p.h. Eight of 14 sexed adults 
were stags. At least four of six does observed had 
calves and no sign of calf mortality was observed. 



Introduction 

Woodland caribou, Rangif er caribou , have undergone a serious 
decline in Ontario as a whole during the last three or four decades 
and no factual information has been collected which can conclusively 
explain why. It was believed that there was a possibility that a 
deficient supply of winter food might be the answer. To solve this 
problem Teuvo Ahti, a very competent Finnish lichenologist , was hired 
in 1957 to survey the caribou range in Ontario and to evaluate it in 
terms of caribou carrying capacity. 

Mr. 'Jrfci was quite impressed by the abundance of ground and 
tree lichens (presumed to be the principal items in the winter diet 
of caribou) in most of the area he covered and estimated a minimum 
carrying capacity of 70,000 caribou for the Province. Since the 
present provincial estimate of woodland caribou numbers 10,000 to 
12,000 something other than abundance of winter food is apparently 
limiting their numbers. 



- 2 - 

It was decided that a summer study of caribou should be 
instigated to add to our meagre knowledge of their biology and to 
indicate along what lines an intensive study into the limiting factors 
should be made. 

The former Woodland Caribou Crown Game Preserve, located 
in the Western Rock Region (Ahti ¥ s lichen classification) of the 
Province was selected as the site for the 1959 study. 

The writer, assisted by two very capable Indians who trapped 
in the study area, worked in this area from July 2 to July 27. A 
conservation officer from Sioux Lookout, E. H. Stone, also assisted 
for the last 10 days. 

P urpose 

The main objective of the study was to obtain data on the 
summer food habits of caribou in the Western Rock Region. Incidental 
to this, dataware to be collected on caribou sex and age ratios, 
behaviour, calf mortality and range quality. 

Methods 

To get a comprehensive coverage of the study area it was 
necessary to move to different locations each day. Base camps were 
established at Haggart Lake and Irregular Lake from July 2 to IS. 
Daily and overnight trips were taken from these camps to cover as 
much of the habitat as possible. On July IS the writer and Mr. 
Stone each accompanied by an Indian embarked on two separate five day 
canoe trips, one to the south and east of the base camp at Irregular 
Lake, and the other to the east-north-east. These trips took both 
parties from the heart of the mature jack pine - black spruce 
coniferous forest with their accompanying excellent stands of ground 
and tree lichens into the peripheral fire-caused, sub-climax forests 
which marked the south and east boundaries of caribou summer distri- 
bution in this study area. Upon completion of these trips the two 
parties travelled by canoe to Red Lake thus covering the north-east 
portion of the lichen fcrest and penetrating into the sub-marginal 
lichen-scarce forest to the north and east of the main area of caribou 
occupation. 

Using a helicopter on July 10 and 11, the writer flew 
transects at two mile intervals over the 320 square mile block cons- 
tituting the main study area. The chief purpose of this was to 
determine how much use was being made of bogs by caribou. 

Because it was suspected that caribou make extensive use 
of islands in early summer, especially at calving time, an effort was 
made to investigate as many islands as possible for evidence of caribou 
useage and possible signs of calf mortality. Various locations on the 
mainland also were investigated these being both highland and bog 
areas. Notes were made on availability and utilization of lichens, 
woody and herbaceous species. Any evidence of caribou activity was 
recorded. 



- 3 - 

Whenever caribou were observed, notes were made on sex, age, 
location and behaviour of each individual or group. Originally it 
was thought that long term observations on single caribou or groups 
of caribou using binoculars and a telescope would be possible^ however, 
due to the fact that the animals were constantly on the move and 
consequently hard to observe this part of the project was not very 
successful. 

Results 

1, Food Habits 

A total of 7$ different locations were examined. Fifty-two 
of these were islands and 26 were on the mainland. Ten of the main- 
land areas were located in bogs. 

Table I lists all species observed to have been utilized 
and the frequency of utilization in the three types. 

As can be seen in this table, woody and herbaceous vegeta- 
tion were extensively eaten during the summer. (In the case of woody 
species usually only leaves were browsed.) Lichens, as suspected, 
also constituted a fair proportion of the caribou menu. 

Aspen, birch and pin cherry, all of which are very common 
throughout the study area in forest openings, are apparently the 
woody species most frequently used. 



TABLE I - Species Utilized By Caribou 



(a) Herbaceous and Woody Vegetation 

Aspen - Populus tremuloides 

Birch - Betula papyrif era 

Pin Cherry - P run us p ensylvanica 

Mt. Alder - Alnus crispa 

Mt. Ash - Sorbus sp. 

Juneberry - Amelanchier sp. 

Willow - Salix sp. 

Aralia racemosa 

A ralia hispida 

R ibes sp. 

Raspberry - Rubus sp. 

Wild Rose - Rosa sp. 

Bush honeysuckle - Diervilla lonicera 

Red Osier Dogwood - Cornus stolonif era 

Horsetail - Equesetum sp. 

Loosestrife - Lysimachia terrestris 

Fireweed - Epilobium angustifolium 

TOTALS 





Number 


of 


Plots Where 




Species 


Utilized 




Bog 


Highland 


Island 


Total 


1 


4 




11 


16 


1 


2 




14 


17 


1 


3 




g 


12 


2 


2 




2 


6 


- 


- 




2 


2 


- 


1 




4 


5 


- 


3 




3 


6 


- 


- 




2 


2 


- 


- 




2 


2 


- 


1 




3 


4 


- 


- 




2 


2 


- 


- 




1 


1 


1 


1 




- 


2 


- 


- 




1 


1 


- 


- 




1 


1 


- 


1 




- 


1 


- 


1 




- 


1 


6 


19 




56 


gl 



- 4 - 



M 



Lichens 



Ground lichens 
Cladonia rait is 
C . uncialis 
C . rangif erina 
C_j_ gracilis 
C. crispola 
Cetraria sp. 
Tree lichens 
Evernia mesomorpha 
U snea comosa 
U. cavernosa 
Ue spp. 



TOTALS 





Number of 


Plots Wh< 


sre 




Species 


Utilized 




Bog 


Highland 


Island 


Total 


_ 


2 


7 


9 


- 


2 


5 


7 


- 


2 


6 


g 


- 


2 


5 


7 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


— 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


2 


2 


- 


- 


5 


5 


- 


- 


4 


4 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


g 


39 


47 



Lichens apparently figure quite prominently in the summer 
diet also. In many instances, however, it was difficult to determine 
whether lichens had been grazed or trampled. I believe that as the 
leafy vegetation approaches maturity the role of lichens in the diet 
decreases. No doubt in the spring and early summer before leaves are 
formed, lichens must be the most important item in the diet. 

Among the ground lichens, three species, Cladonia mitis, 
C^ uncialis , and C^ rangif erina are most important as food. In very 
few areas was the climax lichen C^ alpestris present in any quantity 
whatsoever. This of course indicates that the ground lichens of this 
area are still in the sub-climax of lichen succession. 

Several of the islands and some of the mainland study areas 
had stands of lichens which were almost eliminated, due, probably, to 
both over-grazing and trampling. It is my feeling that caribou, 
during the hot dry summer months when lichens are dry and brittle, 
probably destroy as much lichen by trampling and trailing as they do 
by feeding during other times of the year. In this manner moose could 
be considered competitors with caribou for food as most of the study 
area is inhabited by moose also. 

In certain areas tree lichens are important items in the 
summer diet of caribou, Evernia mesomorpha and Usnea comosa apparently 
being the two most important species. Actually most of the good 
stands of tree lichens are unavailable to caribou, due to their height 
above ground, however, it appears that enough dead lichen-clad branches 
fall throughout the area to provide caribou with a substantial supply 
of this type of food. 



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- 6 - 

Six plots typical of the ground lichen stands in the area, 
each approximately 100 square yards in area were sampled (see Table 
II). 

The most important single fact which this table illustrates 
is the immaturity of the lichen stands i.e. 50-85$ of the plots 
covered by subclimzx, C^ uncialis s> C . mitis and C_._ rangif erina and 
only 1-5$ covered by C^ alpestris . 



TABLE III - Caribou Observations 



Date 



Number 



Sex and Age 



Location 



July 


2 


2 


Adult doe and 


calf 


Haggart Lake 


July 


3 


2 or 3 


Unidentified 




Bog N. of Hag 


July 


3 


2 


Adult doe and 


calf 


Haggart Lake 


July 


g 


2 


Adult doe and 


fawn 


Haggart Lake 


July 


11 


5 


Young stags? small antlers 


Irregular Lak 


July 


14 


1 


Young stag 




Irregular Lak 


July 


14 


1 


Adult doe 




Mather Lake ( 


July 


15 


1 


Yearling stag 




Irregular Lak 


July 


16 


1 


Yearling stag 




Irregular Lak 


July 


17 


1 


Adult doe? 




Mather Lake 


July 


13 


2 


Adult doe and 


calf 


Beamish Lake 



(island) 

gart Lake 

(swimming) 

(swimming) 

e (mainland) 

e (mainland) 

island) 

e (swimming) 

e (swimming)* 

and island 



TOTAL 



21 



Collected skeleton now at Maple. 



1. No. of Observations and Herd Structure Throughout the Year 

A total of 21 caribou were seen during the course of the 
study. The largest aggregation seen was comprised of five animals, 
presumably stags. The large proportion of single and doe-calf obser- 
vations and low proportion of large aggregations in the summer observa- 
tions strongly suggests that woodland caribou roam more or less 
singly throughout the summer. The exception to this might be small 
herds of young stags travelling together during the summer. 



Information gathered during early wi 
summer might be interpreted as follows? Carib 
small very loosely knit assocations during the 
calving time on), upon approach of the rut, th 
closely associated, until large herds (35-45) 
together. This association lasts until perhap 
herds start to disperse into smaller aggregati 
Then by calving time virtually all association 
pregnant does go off into separate secluded ar 
and stags start to range by themselves. 



nter, early spring and 
ou travel around in 

summer (perhaps from 
e animals become more 
are seen travelling 
s mid January then the 
ons of 6-15 animals. 
s are broken down and 
eas (islands?) to calve 



- 7 - 

Due to the unexpected motility of the animals and the fact 
that no suitable lookouts could be found, long term observations on 
single animals or groups of animals were virtually impossible. 

2. Use of Islands 

Islands in the area are used extensively by caribou especi- 
ally by does and their calves. Fifteen of 52 had sign of does and 
calves. An additional 13 had signs of unidentified caribou useage. 
Possibly they seek out islands as refuges from predators. From all 
indications and previous reports it seems possible that many does 
calve on the islands. Evidence which led us to suspect this was the 
heavy use of ground lichens both as food and by excessive trampling 
on several of the islands investigated. These two factors indicated 
that caribou had spent long periods of time on certain islands. 
Further corroborating evidence was the large number of caribou cro- 
tisings on these same islands. 

3 . Caribou and Water 

It appears that caribou are quite amphibious. Ten of 21 
caribou observed were either swimming at the time of initial observa- 
tion or took to the water as a means of escape from the observers. 
By July 2 at least, calves can swim with dexterity equal to any adults 
seen and with almost as much speed. 

The rate at which does and calves swam was surprisingly 
rapid (approximately 5-6 miles per hour). 

That caribou should be good swimmers is actually essential 
in this area as approximately one half of the total area is comprised 
of water in the form of small ponds, lakes and streams. 

One island in Bulging Lake at least one mile from the nearest 
shore had been visited by a caribou some time after break-up. This 
of course meant that the animal would have had to swim one mile to 
the island and at least another mile to the mainland again. 

If live animals were required for food habits studies or 
zoo specimens, exploitation of this swimming behaviourism would greatly 
facilitate capture of caribou for the animals are virtually helpless 
while swimming in deep water. 

4. Sex and Age Ratios 

Unfortunately not enough animals were observed to give a 
reliable estimate of the sex and age ratios. Four of six does 
observed had single calves and it was suspected that one of the two 
single does might have had a calf hidden near by. This would indicate 
that the rate of calving and calf survival is quite high in the area. 

Eight of 14 adult caribou sexed were presumed to be stags. 



- s - 



5. Calf Mortality 



No sign of calf mortality was observed on any of the 52 
islands investigated. This together with the fact that at least four 
of the six does observed had calves, as stated above, suggest a good 
rate of calf survival- To better determine the extent of calf morta- 
lity, extensive fieldwork should be carried out in this area immedia- 
tely after calving. A project of this type has been planned for the 
spring of I960, 

6. Shedding of Doe Antlers 

None of the four does seen with calves had antlers which 
showed at all. One of the two single does also did not have antlers. 
It is believed that pregnant female barrenground caribou do not shed 
their antlers until after they have their calves. Likely this is so 
with woodland caribou also. This spring's fieldwork should shed much 
light on this question. 

7. Development of Antlers 

None of the animals observed had very large sets of antlers. 
This was rather surprising and may suggest either that we did not 
see any of the more prime stags or that the antlers of animals in this 
more southern area are much slower in developing than in caribou along 
the Hudson Bay coast. 

8. Use of Salt Licks 

One salt lick about 300 feet square was located in a bog 
just north of Haggart Lake. Many moose and more caribou tracks were 
clearly defined in the semi solid mud which constituted the lick. 

The Indian assistants stated that they knew of at least 
two other licks in the same general area. These unfortunately were 
not investigated. 

Perhaps long term observations at salt licks would be very 
rewarding in a study of caribou behaviour. 

Summary 

A preliminary summer study of woodland caribou was made in 
the former Woodland Caribou Crown Game Preserve from July 2-27. 

1. Woody and herbaceous vegetation constitutes a large proportion of 
the summer food of caribou. Aspen, birch and pin cherry being 
most important. 

2. The sub-climax ground lichens are utilized extensively by caribou 
during the summer. 



- 9 - 

3. Tree lichens mainly Evernia mesomorpha and Usnea comosa are also 
used when available during the summer, 

4. Trampling and trailing by caribou and moose causes much loss of 
ground lichens during the hot dry periods of the summer, 

5. Most of the range in this area supports a sub-climax stand of 
lichens consisting mainly of Cladonia uncialis s C „ mitis and C. 
rangif erina . 

6. Twenty-one caribou were observed during the study and no groups 
consisted of more than five animals. 

7. It is believed that the groups of caribou seen in late winter 
disperse just prior to calving time. 

$. Islands perhaps play a role in the protection of caribou calves 
from predators. 

9. Caribou are quite amphibious and often take to the water as a 
means of escape. 

10 o Calves are very strong swimmers by July? 

11. Estimated speed of caribou when swimming is 5-6 m.p.h. 

12. Caribou could easily be caught in the water. 

13« Eight of 14 sexed adults were stags. 

I/4.0 At least four of six does observed had calves and no sign of 
calf mortality was observed. 

15. None of the does with calves had begun to develop new antlers. 

16. No animals seen during the study had large sets of antlers. 

17. Salt licks are apparently utilized by caribou - one was located. 



- 10 - 



SAMPLE SIZE TO FIND HUNTER SUCCESS 



by 
R. Boultbee 



Abstract 



This paper is designed to answer the question - How big 
a sample is needed to get an acceptable estimate of 
hunter success? Sample size depends on the error which 
the Fish and Wildlife Supervisor is willing to accept, 
the confidence limits which suit his needs, and the 
hunter success rate found in previous years. Four 
equations and two worked out examples planned to supply 
all the basis required to decide sample size according 
to the District* s circumstances are presented. 



At a Fish and Wildlife meeting of five Districts in Port 
Arthur on March 17th and 18th, I960 it was asked how big a sample is 
needed to get an acceptable estimate of hunter success. The reference 
was to the questionnaire mailed to moose hunters by District offices. 
Time and money are needed to mail the questionnaires and make follow- 
ups. Until now rule-of-thumb proportions have been taken of the 
total number of hunters. 

Sample size depends on the error which the Fish and Wildlife 
Supervisor is willing to accept, the confidence limits which suit his 
needs, and the hunter success rate found in previous years. These 
features sound unwieldy but two examples will show that they present 
no difficulty. 

The following four equations supply all the basis required 
to decide sample size according to the Districts circumstances: 

80% confidence limits, N =1.64 SF/x 2 

90% confidence limits, N = 2.71 SF'/x 2 

95% confidence limits, N = 3c 84 SF/x 2 

99% confidence limits, N = 6.64 SF/x 2 

where N is the number in the sample, 

S is the percentage of successes, 

F is the percentage of failures 
(S plus F equals 100) , 

x is the acceptable error. 



-11- 



As the first example suppose the District has a very impor- 
tant non-resident moose hunt. It will be satisfactory to come within 
five percent of the correct rate of hunter success, but the Supervisor 
wants to minimize the risk of being more than five percent from the 
correct answer. He would set x at five and use the equation with 99% 
confidence limits. If experience has told him that hunter success 
runs at about 60 percent the equation would be 

N = 6.64(60) (40) = 637.44 or say 64O 
(5) (5) 

The Supervisor would mail enough questionnaires to get back 
64O replies. 

For the second example suppose the District has an unimpor- 
tant resident moose hunt and the Supervisor merely wants to keep track 
of it. He might be satisfied to come within ten percent of the true 
success rate. Since this is a fairly liberal margin of acceptable 
error he might decide not to take too big a risk of being wrong. 
Therefore he decides to use the equation for 95$ confidence limits 
which gives 

N = 3.64(60) (40) = 92.16 or say 95 
(10) (10) 

If the returns from these 95 questionnaires show a success 
rate of, say, 58% the Supervisor would say the success rate lies 
between 4# and 68 percent with five chances in a hundred as the risk 
of being wrong. 

The equations have a built-in safety feature. Examination 
will show they call for the biggest sample when the success rate is 
50%. If the success rate is lower or higher than 50% the sample will 
be smaller. Therefore when in doubt play safe by using 50 for S and F. 

The equations were obtained from the variance for a binomial 
distribution, (Npq), The confidence limits were derived from a table 
of "t' s (d.f. = infinity). 



- 12 - 

REPORT OF THE MEETING OF THE TECHNICAL SECTION, 
MISSISSIPPI FLYWAY COUNCIL 
FEBRUARY 16-13, I960, STUTTGART, ARKANSAS 

by 
Ho Go Lumsden 

Ab strac t 

Built up from a low of 40,000 in January 1946 to 3$8,000 
in January 19 5# the Mississippi Flyway population of 
Canada Geese was down to 256,000 in January I960. The 
Council recommended a reduction of the kill in fall of 
1960e Because of serious drought conditions on the 
prairies Canvasback numbers were at their lowest level 
since the advent of modern survey methods- From an 
estimated 600,000 birds in January, 1954, this species 
had been reduced to 150,000 birds in January, I960, a 
75% decline. Redhead numbers were drastically reduced 
also and the emergency called for more protection for 
this species. The following measures for correcting 
the situation were considered. (1) closure of the 
season completely on Canvasbacks and Redheads, (2) 
close of the season on these two species but permitting 
one mistake bird in the bag, (3) closure of areas known 
to be concentration points for Canvasbacks and Redheads. 
The Mallard had also suffered from the prairie drought 
and the production of young birds was the lowest in 
1959 since records had been kept. Losses from lead 
poisoning annually amount to about 3% of the flyway 
population of ducks. As a means of correcting this 
situation the use of iron shot was considered and a 
resolution was passed recommending that the Council ask 
the Wildlj f e Management Institute to approach Olin 
Industries to carry out field tests using iron shot. 
The water situation on the prairies and the banding of 
ducks are also discussed. 



On February 15 I left Ontario by air to attend the winter 
meeting of the Technical Section of the Mississippi Flyway Council. 
About 50 delegates were present from all states in the Flyway, the 
U.S. Federal Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, and the Canadian 
Wildlife Servicer All were biologists engaged in research and 
management of the waterfowl resource. 

The meetings ran through February 16 and 17. On the 18th 
of February the scheduled field trip ~ a flight over the Arkansas 
river bottoms - was cancelled due to bad weather and I returned to 
Ontario. 



- 13 - 

The following notes that I took during the discussions 
cover problems that concern us to some extent in Ontario. 

Canada Geese 

I have been asked to serve on the Canada Goose Committee and 
attended a special evening meeting to discuss action on current 
problems . The following gives some of the background? 

The bulk of the Canada geese of the Mississippi Flyway breed 
in Ontario . Over 90% of them winter on about 16 state and federal 
refuges in the U.S.. Most of the kill of Canada Geese occurs round 
these refuges and it can be controlled by varying the amount of food 
made available. A reduction of food on a refuge forces the birds to 
visit farmland while an increase in the food supply draws them into 
the refuge again. Cob corn is the best and most frequently used 
food. 

Through careful management the Flyway population of Canada 
Geese has been built up from a low of just over 40,000 in January, 
1946 to a peak of 3SS,000 in January, 1953. 

Factors unknown at present and perhaps overshooting have 
reduced the population to 2 56,000 in January, I960. And if the 
population is to recover the kill must be reduced in the fall of 
I960. Since relatively few Canada geese are shot in Ontario by lice- 
nsed sportsmen there is little that we can do to help, however we 
may be involved in discussion with the Flyway Council because of the 
Indian kill. 

The Flyway population of Canada geese breaks down into a 
number of discreet units. One of these which is called the Great 
Lakes Flock breeds entirely in the Patricias, on migration it passes 
through Wisconsin and winters in southern Illinois. In January, 1956 
at its peak it numbered 225,000 in January, 1959 through over shooting 
it has been reduced to about 134*000. 

Analysis of the age composition of the flock at this time 
indicates that next spring there will be probably not more than 
13,000 breeding pairs. This has come about because juvenals are more 
vulnerable to hunting than older birds. The age class that should be 
maturing this year is a small one due to overhunting in the past. 

If breeding conditions are normal in the spring of I960 we 
can expect a crop probably not exceeding 34,000 young. 

After considerable discussion it was decided that the kill 
in this flock should not be permitted to exceed 20,000 in I960. 
In 1959 Wisconsin alone killed about 20,000 and the total kill from 
this flock was about 55,000 in the U.S. 



- 14 - 

The normal kill by Indians in the Patricias is about $,000 
Canada geese. This will leave 12,000 tc be shared throughout the 
Flyway. There appears to be some jealousy between the states over 
the kill of Canada geese* Illinois and Wisconsin have been unable to 
agree on a quota through which the harvest can be shared. It is 
likely that there will be recriminations and the Indian kill will be 
questioned. We should present a statement to the Council outlining 
the circumstances surrounding the Indian kill and placing on record 
our views concerning restriction of this kill. 

Canvasbacks and Redheads 

In 1959 the Canvasback populations of the eastern parts of 
the continent dropped to their lowest levels since the advent of 
modern survey methods. At their peak of numbers in January, 1954 the 
eastern Canvasback population was estimated about 600,000 birds. 
In January, I960 the estimate was 150,000 - a 75% decline. 

Under normal conditions Canvasbacks have the highest nest 
success rate ($0%) of any duck so far studied. They also withstand 
close to the highest mortality rate from hunting (about 70% for juve- 
nals and 40% for adults). In spite of this under normal conditions 
they have been able to hold their own or even increase. Now however, 
with the drought on the prairies which has dried up or rendered useless 
for breeding most of the pot-holes, the Canvasback situation is serious, 

In 195$ the daily limit of Canvasbacks was reduced in the 
U.S. to two birds per day and in 1959 to one bird. In Ontario the 
limit was reduced to four Canvasbacks or Redheads per day in 1959. 
Further restriction in the kill will be necessary in I960. 

The Redhead situation is similar and a great deal more 
protection will be necessary for this species also. 

The following measures for correcting the situation were 
discussed? 

1. Closure of the season completely on Canvasbacks and 
Redheads. 

This measure will raise enforcement problems. A great many hunters 
cannot identify duck species in the hand and certainly could not 
distinguish these species on the wing. If enforced rigorously this 
measure would result in the conviction of many hunters for an offence 
for which there was no intent and hence no guilt. 

2. Closure of the season on these two species but permitting 
one mistake bird in the bag. 



- 15 - 

This situation in effect existed in the U.S. last fall. The one bird 
in the bag regulation was accompanied by one of the most elaborate 
publicity programs in the history of waterfowl management to inform 
hunters of the need to preserve Redheads and Canvasbacks. In spite 
of this some hunters took advantage of the loophole and some complete 
Canvasback decoy setups were observed. 

In Ontario our bag limit could be reduced from the four 
permitted in 1959c 

3. Closure of areas known to be concentration points for 
Canvasbacks and Redheads. 

In Ontario, Lake St. Clair, and to a lesser extent, Rondeau Park and 
Long Point are the only concentration areas for the endangered 
species. The first two areas are the only good places in southern 
Ontario where the public at large can get diving duck shooting. 
Long Point is mostly private where the Canvasbacks concentrate. 

Band returns indicate that the Canvasback kill in Ontario 
equals that in Michigan and is about the fourth highest among all the 
states and provinces. 

Ontario should take effective steps to reduce the kill of 
these species in I960. 

Mallards 

Since 1956 about 3*5 million Mallards have been shot 
annually in the Mississippi Flyway. This species comprises about 
60% of the bag. Banding recoveries suggest that the annual kill 
constitutes about half the total Flyway population. 

The proportion of young birds in the bag in 1959 was the 
lowest on record with that of 195$ next lowest. 

The drought on the prairies has been the cause of their low 
productivity and if we are to restore the Mallard to more desirable 
population levels the kill must be reduced. 

In Ontario we shall on the whole be little affected by the 
decline of the prairie breeding populations of dabbling ducks as 
far as hunting is concerned. However, several people at the meeting 
pointed out to me that when the big waterfowl production centres are 
affected by drought the waterfowl production of Ontario becomes more 
important, to the Flyway as a whole. 

The Water Situation On the Prairies 

The fall of 1959 in the best duck producing part of the 
prairies was wet and freeze up came early. Snowfall has been greater 
than in the previous two winters but is no greater than the long term 
average to date. Water conditions in the pot-holes will depend on 
March snowfall. If unusually large amounts fall this month waterfowl 
breeding conditions will be improved but two or three years of good 
run-off will be necessary to restore conditions to those we experienced 
in the early 1950 9 s. 



- 16 - 

Prospects for improved water levels look good east of a 
line from Kindersly to Swift Current . West of this line a poor run- 
off is expected and the outlook is not good. It will take two or three 
years for normal stands of emergent aquatic plants to become estab- 
lished after water levels recover, so that we cannot expect an improve- 
ment in the diving duck situation and particularly in Canvasbacks 
and Redheads this summer. Dabbling ducks particularly Mallards may 
make some recovery if run-off is good, 

Bajiding 

In 1959 about 3 5*000 ducks were banded in Canada of which 
10,000 were Mallards. A series of banding stations have been set up 
right across the continent spaced about 100 miles apart. These sta- 
tions have an objective to band 1,000 Mallards each so that mortality 
rates through band returns can be studied. Most stations succeeded 
in reaching their objective in 1959 and will produce about 100 direct 
recoveries each for analysis. 

Recoveries indicated a heavy kill of Mallards in 1959 in 
Canada, mostly from southeastern Manitoba. About 36% of the Union 
County, Illinois banding station recoveries were from this area. 

The Flyway has an objective to band 300 Wood Ducks per year 
in each state. In 1959, 14 states banded 4,949. Ontario has not 
participated in this program and only about 16 Wood Ducks were banded 
by the sportsmen at Oshawa. 

Ontario operated a banding station at Gogama and another 
on the Burrows Lake chain at Geraldton in 1959. This was at the re- 
quest of the Atlantic Flyway Council through their interest in Black 
Ducks. We did not participate in any of the Mississippi Flyway 
banding programs in 1959. 

Lead Poisoning 

Losses from lead poisoning annually amount to about J>% of 
the Flyway population of ducks. This may equal the entire annual 
production of such areas as the 4,000 square mile highly productive 
Minedosa pot-hole country in Manitoba. It would cost an immense sum 
to artificially produce an equivalent number of ducks to that lost 
through lead poisoning. 

Iron shot would seem to be the answer. Disadvantages, 
however, are as follows? 

1. It would cost the ammunition industry about one million 
in capital investment to produce the shot for commercial 
use. 

2. Acceptance by hunters is likely to be poor due to 
anticipated loss of range. Studies are needed to 
determine the extent of this factor. Iron shot can be 
annealed to make it so soft that it will not affect 

gun barrels. Ten thousand rounds have made no difference 
to barrels in tests. 



- 17 - 

After much discussion a resolution was passed recommending 
that the Council ask the Wildlife Management Institute to approach 
Olin Industries to carry out field tests of the iron shot to measure 
difference in penetration and killing power from lead shot. 

K ill Survey and Duck Wing St udy 

The UoSc Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife conducts a 
kill survey by mail annually using duck stamp sales records from 
which to draw a sample , This year a sample of hunters received a 
request prior to the season to save one wing from each duck shot 
and send it in for study* From this species composition of the bag 
and the age and sex of the bird could be determined, 

About 10,000 wings were received from throughout the U.S. 
of which 4*329 were Mallards. The results of the analysis of this 
sample confirmed the findings from the field checks - that Mallard 
production was the lowest in 1959 since records have been kepto 

Ontario has not participated in this wing collection except 
for a special study of Canvasback wings collected in Erie District 
for Mr. Do 01sen„ 

The Gruneau Research study may give us some estimate of 
duck kill in the province* 



- 18 - 

REPORT ON THE HUNTER SURVEY FOR THE 1953-1959 HUNTING 
SEASON IN THE LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 

by 
A, A. Wainio 

Abstract 

In the spring of 1959 the District Office chose at 
random 10 per cent of 5,000 hunters who bought licences 
to hunt in the regulated townships of Lake Simcoe 
District during the season of 195&-59 an d sent them 
hunter survey questionnaire forms along with a letter 
explaining the reason for the survey, a total of 335 
hunters or 39. $ per cent returned the forms. From the 
returns it was possible to calculate the number of 
hunters using dogs; the average number of days hunted; 
the favourite month for hunting and the break down of 
the total bag. Tables are presented showing hunter 
response to the survey forms, the distribution of the 
hunting pressure and the total kill for each of the 
regulated townships. From the questionnaires returned 
it was learned that 40.7 per cent of the hunters used 
dogs and these hunters secured 60.9 per cent of the 
total bag. Hunters spent 7.7 man-hours afield per 
animal killed and averaged 7°0 animals per bag. Each 
hunter spent an average of 4«2 hours hunting per day. 



In the spring of 1959 the District Office at Maple sent 
questionnaire forms to 340 hunters who bought licences to hunt for the 
winter of 195&-59 i n "the 16 regulated townships of the Lake Simcoe 
District. We chose at random 10$ of the $000 and more hunters who 
bought licences. With the form we included a letter explaining the 
reason for our survey and a brief report on a pheasant-hunt survey 
carried out last fall. 

Of the 10$ contacted, 39.3$ returned the forms. This is 
a low return. In order to secure a better response we should have 
sent a follow-up letter about two or three weeks after the hunters 
had received the questionnaire. This letter would have reiterated 
the importance of the survey and added a note of urgency so that more 
would have replied. From these filled out forms we learned the 
following facts - 40.7$ of the hunters used dogs and these hunters 
secured 60.9$ of the total bag; the hunters averaged 667.4 hunting 
days per month from October to February inclusive; the hunters spent 
7.7 man-hours per animal killed and each man averaged 7«0 animals 
per bag; also they averaged 4.2 hours of hunting per day. 



- 19 - 

The figures on the hunters success are probably biased 
towards the most successful hunters. The high figures for the numbers 
of small game per bag seems to indicate this. Similarly the fact that 
l+Ofo of the hunters used dogs and bagged such a high percentage of 
game shows that a large number of our returns were from the most ardent 
hunters. These more zealous hunters probably answBred the survey form 
as soon as possible while a follow-up letter would most likely solicit 
replies from the more unsuccessful ones. A second such letter would 
likely attract the still poorer hunters. Such follow-up letters 
should be employed to secure a better response and to see if such a 
gradation of hunters results. 

The percentage of hunters using dogs is high. With more of 
the poorer and more unsuccessful hunters reporting, this percentage 
probably would have gone down. This percentage gives a picture of 
the hunt slanted to the more zealous hunters with dogs. The hunters* 
ego and the long interval between the time the men hunted and the time 
the questionnaire was received probably contributed to a higher 
reported bag. 

Table I gives the composition of the total reported bag. 

TABLE I - 



Game Species Percent of the Total Bag 

Pheasants 12.9 

Fox 9.6 

Jack rabbit 25.1 

Snowshoe rabbit 4.1 

Ruffed Grouse 2.4 

Cottontail rabbit 45-3 



From Table II outlining the response to our survey forms one 
can see that there is no real difference between the residents and 
non-residents^ one would expect residents to show a greater response 
but this does not appear to be so with this survey. This especially 
applies to Markham, Vaughan, King and Whitchurch. The analysis of 
the snowshoe rabbit bag can pretty well be ignored for practically all 
of the 16 regulated townships lie in the southern half of our 
district where the snowshoe is almost non-existent. The grouse season 
ended in November yet some of the hunters reported shooting ruffed 
grouse in December, January and February. 

From Table VI showing the total kill of each animal in each 
of the 16 regulated townships a graph could be drawn showing how the 
total kill varies from township to township for each animal. However, 
this does not seem sound for the total kill in each case is based on 
such a small number of hunters reporting and a small bag count. 



- 20 - 



Calculations of total kills should be figured only after a good return 
of hunter reports is received. Included are the results of an indepen- 
dent pheasant survey carried out during the 195$ pheasant season 
(see Table VII). The difference between the two pheasant surveys is 
quite noticeable. The survey carried out during the season is far 
more reliable for in it the officers checked only those hunting phea- 
sants while the hunters reporting our mail survey include many who 
bought licences after the pheasant hunt. Also the separate, short 
survey deals with a more mathematically sound proportion of men hunting 
and of pheasants shot. 

Included with this report are the letters and survey form 
we mailed to the hunters (see sheet 1, 2 and 3). 

Such a mailed survey as this is worthwhile. Granted it has 
its drawbacks as indicated previously, however, it gives the district 
office an idea of where the hunting pressure is the greatest, how 
this hunting pressure varies from year to year and from township to 
township and above all it gives an overall general picture which is 
an excellent reference for future use* 

TABLE II - Showing the Response to the Hunter Survey Form 

In the 16 Regulated Townships of the Lake Simcoe District . 



Township 



Adjala 

Albion 

Caledon 

Chinguacousy 

Toronto Gore 

W. Gwillimbury 

E. Gwillimbury 

King 

Markham 

Pickering 

Toronto 

Tecumseth 

Whitby 

Vaughan 

Whitchurch 

E. Whitby 



Total 



R 


esidents 




Non-Residents 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Addresses 


No. Sent 


No. 


No. Sent 


No. 


Contacted 


Out 


Returns 
2 


Out 


Returns 


IS 


5 


13 


5 


44 


13 


7 


31 


10 


37 


18 


10 


19 


9 


51 


23 


8 


28 


9 


14 


4 


1 


10 


3 


23 


11 


4 


12 


5 


12 


6 


3 


6 


1 


78 


27 


8 


51 


19 


32 


41 


14 


41 


23 


103 


65 


19 


38 


24 


S3 


58 


30 


30 


9 


47 


14 


4 


33 


17 


49 


21 


7 


28 


9 


97 


30 


15 


67 


24 


64 


27 


11 


37 


16 


33 


10 


2 


23 


7 


8 40 


373 


145 


467 


190 



- 21 - 



Per cent of residents who answered = 145 x 100 r 

373 

Per cent of non-residents who answered = 190 x 100 = 1+0% 

Per cent of returns, residents and 

non-residents = 335 x 100 = 39. %% 

"§40 



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- 30 - 



TABLE VII - Result 


s of Independent Phea 


sant Survey Carried 


Out 


During. 


the Pheasant Season, 


November 


, 1958. 








Total 


No. 




Pheasant 






Noo 


Hunters 


No. 


Per 


Total 


Township '. 


licences 
402 


Checked 
56 


Shot 
16 


Hunter 
.29 


Kill 


Whitby 


117 


East Whitby 


177 


63 


14 


.22 


39 


Pickering 


970 


257 


71 


.24 


233 


T'larkham 


756 


199 


139 


.69 


522 


Whitchurch 


394 


275 


56 


.23 


91 


Vaughan 


524 


18 


4 


.22 


115 


King 


413 


78 


54 


.69 


285 


E. Gwillimbury 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Toronto 


711 


347 


95 


.27 


192 


Toronto Gore 


120 


11 


— 


_ 


- 


Chinguacousy 


3 59 


181 


38 


.21 


75 


Albion 


- 


- 


— 


- 


- 


Caledon 


120 


67 


30 


o 44 


53 


Adjala 


- 


- 


- 


- 




Tecuraseth 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


W. Gwillimbury 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Total 


4955 


1552 


517 


o33 


1722 



SHEET 1 




when replying kindly quote 
this; file number 



ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND ^CRESTS 



Kaple, Ontario 
March 24, 1959 



REg HUNTER SURVEY 

Dear Sirs 

I am asking for your cooperation as a 
sportsman to help us further our knowledge of game and hunting 
conditions,, As you are no doubt aware an animal or bird population 
is difficult to estimate. Therefore, we must depend on the results 
of the hunt to a large extent to provide the information necessary 
to manage our game and set proper seasons. 

In the 16 Lake Simcoe District Regulated 
Townships the game harvest is taken by over 5,000 hunters. We 
have selected 500 hunters from the township records and are asking 
these persons to complete a questionnaire which simply asks r 'how 
long did you hunt" and ,; how much game did you bag". 

You are one of these selected hunters and 
I would appreciate your cooperation in completing the enclosed 
questionnaire and returning it to us in the stamped addressed 
envelope provided. Even if you hunted very little this winter we 
would like to have the questionnaire returned. 

Your comments are always welcome. 

Yours very truly 

(J. M. Fraser) 

A. Wo Leman 
JMF/md for District Forester 



P.S. For your information we have enclosed a brief report on a 
survey we carried out after the pheasant hunt last fall. 



SHEET 2 




WHEN REPLYING KINDLY QUOTE 
THIS FILE NUMBER 

Albion Non-Res, 



DEPARTMENT Or LANDS AND FORESTS 



HUNTER SURVEY-LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 
(Fall and Winter 1953-59) 



(a) Township Hunteds 



(b) How many days did you hunt in October? 

November 
December 

January 

February 



(c) How many hours did you hunt on an average day? 

(d) Did you usually use a dog? 



(e) Please fill in the game you bagged in the different months 



Species Oct. Nov, Dec. Jan. Feb. Total 

P heasant 

Fox 



Jack Rabbit 



Snowshoe Rabbit 
Ruffed Grouse 



Cottontail Rabbit 



REMARKS: 



( Signed) 



- 33 - 

WMCN REPLYING KINDLY GUOI 



SHEET 3 j« 



T HIT PILE NUMBER 



ONTARIO 

DZPAR"WEN7 Or" LANDS AND FORESTS 



RESULTS OF HUNTER SURVEY-PHEASANT SEASON-OCTOBER, 1953 

LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 



This survey covered hunter;; yfno held township licences 
in 13 regulated townships of the Lake Simcoc District, These town- 
sh:DS sold a total of 5106 hunting licences and we picked at random 
642 names of licence holders and sent a questionnaire to each. We 
received 334 questionnaires (52%) back from interested hunters. The 
remaining 48f? apparently were not interested in future hunting. 

The 334 questionnaires returned to us provided the 
following information (19 did not hunt). 

Number of hunters ■•■• 315 

Total hours hunted - 3--1-- 

Number of pheasants killed - 302 (195 cocks, ".07 h< 

Number of hunting hours per bird killed «- 10*3 

Number of rabbits killed - 232 

Number of fox killed 

Number of ruffed grouse killed -;. 

If the hunters who completed the questionnaire are 

representative 0^ all the hunters who purchased licences the pheasant 
kill over the 13 townships was approximately 4600. 



JMF/md 

Mar./ 59. 



- 34 - 



PHEASANT HUNT STATISTICS, 1959, LINDSAY DISTRICT 

by 
P. Wo Swan son 



Abstract 

A banding program was carried out during the summer of 
1959 in order to collect data for evaluating the contri- 
bution of hatchery raised stock to pheasant hunting in 
the Regulated Townships of Clarke and Darlington. A 
game bag survey card was issued with each township 
licence (1,327/ soldo Some 233 hunters or 17 • 4$ 
returned cards. From this information and the licen- 
cing records it was learned that 65% of the reported 
kill consisted of banded birds; 70.4% of the hunters 
reporting were successful in shooting at least one 
bird; hunter success averaged out to 2.06 pheasants 
per hunter; of the total kill 5$. 7% were cocks and 
1+1.3% hens. 



Pheasant leg banding was carried out during the summer of 
1959 in the Regulated Townships of Clarke and Darlington with a total 
of if, 166 birds banded and released. 

A total of 6,000 chicks, 500 poults and 350 adult birds 
were provided for release in these two townships from the Provincial 
Game Bird Farm at Codrington. All the adults and poults were leg 
banded as were 3 ,366 of the chicks on reaching the poult stage. The 
discrepancy between the 6,000 chicks provided and the 3,366 banded 
may be attributed partially to mortality and partially to the nature 
of the gentle release system whereby birds were not available for 
banding. The purpose of this banding program was to collect data for 
assessing and evaluating the contribution of hatchery raised stock 
to pheasant hunting and propagation in our Regulated Townships. 

The open season on pheasants was from October 10th to 
October 31st. The daily bag limit was three birds, one (l) of which 
could be a hen. A game bag census or survey card was issued with 
each township licence sold and hunters were requested to return cards 
to the Lindsay office immediately following the hunt. Cards were 
self-addressed with postage guaranteed, but only 17 • 4% of the hunters 
returned their cards. This was disappointing and frustrating as 
cards dribbled in all xvinter making it impossible to submit a detailed 
report soon after the hunt was over* 

The following information was extracted from the licencing 
records and completed survey cards? 



- 35 - 

1959 Pheasant Hunt Statistics 



TABLE I - Sale of Licences 


and Return of Ca: 


rds 














Resident 


Non- 
Resident 

425 
93 


Total 

1,125 

202 

1,327 


No. Hunters 
Reporting 

200 
33 


Percent 
Reporting 


Darlington Twp. 700 
Clarke Township 109 


17 o 7$ 
16, 3% 


3G9 


515 


233 


17.4$ 



17. h-% of the hunters returned their cards. 



TABLE II - Data on the Ki 


.11 


- Sex 


of 


Birds 


Shot 


















Cocks 


% 

56,5 
65.3 

53,7 


Hens 

157 
42 

199 


43 = 5 
34.7 

41.3 


Kill Reported 


Darlington Twp. 204 
Clarke Township 79 


361 
121 


233 


432 



Of the total kill reported, 5$. 7% were cocks 
and 41->3/& were hens. 



TABLE III - Data on Banded and Unhanded Birds Harvested 



Banded 


% 


Unband< 


sd 


(A 


257 


71.2 


104 




23.8 


59 


43 c 3 


62 




51.2 


316 


65.6 


166 




34*4 



Kill Reported 



Darlington Twp. 257 71.2 104 23.8 36I 
Clarke Township 59 43c3 62 51.2 121 



432 



65e6% of the reported kill consisted of banded 
birds. 



TABLE IV - Hunters Success 

















Successful 

Hunters 

132 
32 

164 


% 

66.0 
97.0 

70.4 


Unsuccess 
Hunters 


ful 


fo 


Darlington Twp. 
Clarke Township 


63 
1 




34 
3 




69 




29.6 



No. of Hunters 
Reporting 



200 
33 

233 



- 36 - 

70.4% of the hunters reporting were successful in 
shooting one bird at least. 

233 hunters reported shooting a total of 4^2 birds. 
This makes an average of 2.06 pheasants per hunter. 

Although our harvest statistics are limited, we consider it 
to be a fair sample. By projecting the results to include the 
entire 1959 pheasant hunt based on total licences sold the following 
information becomes available. 

Total Pheasants Harvested - 2,720 

No. Cock Birds in Kill - 1,596 

No. Hen Birds in Kill - 1,124 

No. Banded Birds in Kill - 1,7^4 

No. Unbanded Birds in Kill - 936 

Of the total (4,136) banded birds released in 1959, 1,784 
or 42.4% were harvested by hunters. 



- 37 - 

WATERFOWL CAUGHT IN MUSKRAT TRAPS IN PATRICIA WEST 
AND PATRICIA CENTRAL 1953-59 SEASON 

by 
D„ W, Simkin 

Abstract. 

Trappers were interviewed at the spring trappers 9 
meetings in Patricia Centra] and Patricia West in order 
to determine how many waterfowl were trapped in the 
spring and which species are most susceptible to losses 
in muskrat traps . Some 694 or $3% of all trappers in 
the Patricias were interviewee 1 o A total of 1,159 
waterfowl was reporten. trapped, an increase of 25% 
over rat trap losses from the 1957-5$ season Twelve 
different species including two shovelers were reported 
taken. Of all the waterfowl caught 57% were mallards. 
A comparison with last year's maps showed very little 
change in distribution of waterfowl densitites as 
calculated from the waterfowl lost in muskrat trap 
questionnaires. It was suggested that this type of 
survey be carried on for at least two more years = 



For the second consecutive year all trappers interviewed 
at the spring trappers 7 meetings in most band areas of Patricia 
Central and Patricia West were queried as to the number of water- 
fowl which they had caught in their muskrat traps r A gooa basis 
for evaluating waterfowl losses by this factor was established from 
questionnaires filled out for the 1957-5^ season but it was deemed 
desirable to continue the study for another one or two years to 
determine how variable the losses are from one year to another and 
over a period o.f years snd how closely they are related to population 
densities. 

Our main purpose this year, as last, was to determines 

(1) How many waterfowl are trapped in the spring. 

(2) Which species are most susceptible to losses in muskrat traps. 

The data collected last year led us to believe that data 
on waterfowl losses in muskrat traps might prove valuable in 
indicating areas of greatest waterfowl breeding densities. To 
determine the value of this method several years data should be 
collected and then analyzed'. 

Unfortunately data from some band areas checked in 1957-58 
were not collected for the 1956-59 season. However, a good sample 
from most band areas was obtained. 



- 33 - 

Six hundred and ninety-four trappers were interviewed in 
195$- 59 as compared to 642 in the previous season,, 

How Many Waterfow l Were Trapped in t he S prin g 

Approximately $3% of all the trappers in Patricia Central 
and Patricia West were interviewed last springe To determine an 
estimated total kill for the band areas in which the trappers 
were interviewed the same method which was used last year was 
implemented. That is an index derived from the number of muskrats 
caught per duck by the interviewed trappers in each band area was 
applied to the total rat kill for the respective band area. 

Table I shows the reported kill by band area as well as 
the estimated kill within each band area. The estimated total 
of 1834 waterfowl for 1959 is 25$ higher than the kill of 1467 
estimated in 195$» 

Using the same surmissals as last year. i.e. two-thirds of 
the birds are breeders and sex ratio of 60 males per 40 females, and 
an average of three young per brood reaching flying stage in the 
succeeding fall. This loss of 132$ birds to muskrat traps theoreti- 
cally decreased the fall population by approximately 3300 birds. 

The question now is, does this increased kill reflect 
an increase in the northward migrating population of waterfowl? 
We believe that it should. It will be interesting to see what change 
occurs next spring when a population of waterfowl, ducks mainly, 
which we believe had a poor breeding year in 1959 and hence should 
be considerably reduce, comes back into its breeding ground. 

We still believe that the kill reported is not critical 
in terms of the number of waterfowl available to the Canadian hunter; 
however, in future years when hunting takes a larger proportion of 
the waterfowl population it might be necessary to require the 
trappers to take precautions to prevent waterfowl from getting caught 
in rat trapse 

What Species Were Most S u scepti bl e to Trapping Losses 

The various species of waterfowl reported trapped in the 
area are not equally numerous in the Ontario part of their range 
and as yet no intensive inventory of these birds has been done in 
the portion of their range discussed here. As a result we repeat 
that the findings here reported do not necessarily indicate which 
species are most susceptible to trap losses but merely indicate 
the status of each species in the kill. 

All figures reported in this portion of the report are 
actual reported figures and not computed estimateso 



- 39 - 

Again the mallard was the most common species taken in rat 
traps o Six hundred and sixty or 57% of all waterfowl trapped were 
mallards. This is a significant reduction however from last year 
when mallards comprised 69% of the kill. As was found last year 
the green-winged teal and lesser scaup ranked second and third in 
numbers taken in traps. There is a possibility of incorrect identi- 
fication of the latter species. As it is believed that the ring- 
necked duck, a very similar looking species, is much more common than 
the lesser scaup in the area here discussed* This year when inter- 
viewing the trappers we will take specimens of both species to show 
the trappers. 

An unusual species to be reported in rat traps for the 
Patricias is the shoveler. Two were reported trapped, one from 
Pikangikum and the other from Island-Red Sucker band area. 

Twelve different species were reported trapped in the area 
here discussed. 

Distribution of Waterfowl 

To determine the validity of this type of survey as an 
indicator of waterfowl densities in different band areas, several 
years of data must be gathered and compared. For this reason 
diagrams I and II are constructed again in a similar manner to last 
year. 

That is, the index of rats trapped per waterfowl is used 
as a criterion of waterfowl densities. Densities are recorded as 
high (1-20 rats per bird) medium (21-50 rats per bird) and low 51 
or more rats per bird. 

Comparison with last years maps shows differences in the 
density of waterfowl in many band areas. Five band areas had similar 
classifications to the 1957-5$? four areas had a density one group 
higher than in 57-58, three areas had a density one group lower and 
one area had a density two groups lower than in the previous year. 

Summary 

1. A "Waterfowl caught in rat trap survey" was again conducted in 
Patricia Central and Patricia West districts for the 195S-59 

season, 

2. Six hundred and ninety-four or 83% of all the trappers in the 
Patricias were interviewed, 

3» One thousand, one hundred and fifty-nine waterfowl were reported 
trapped and an estimated 1834 were believed to have been trapped. 
This was an increase of 25% on the rat trap losses from the 1957- 
58 season. 



- 40 - 

4o It is surmised that the loss of 1834 ducks from the spring 

population resulted in a loss of approximately 3300 ducks in the 
fall migration. This loss is still not considered too important;, 
however, the potential importance of losses even as small as 
these is realized when thinking of the future. 

5. Fifty-seven percent of all waterfowl caught in rat traps were 
mallards e 

6. Twelve different species including two shovelers were reported 
taken in traps. 

7. There was very little change in distribution of waterfowl 
densities as calculated from the waterfowl lost in muskrat trap 
questionnaires. 

So It is believed that this type of survey should be conducted 
for at least one or two more years. 

Acknowledgments 

The bulk of the data here reported was collected by 
Conservation Officers, E. H. Stone, D. Sayers, C. Milko, R. Toews, 
C. Currie and by the author. Conservation Officer J. Lessard 
assisted in compiling the statistics. 



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- 43 - 



Patricia West District 



Plan Showing Waterfowl 
Concentrations As Indicated 
By Rat Trap Losses 

IWI High Is 20 Rats/Bird 
Med. 21s 50 Rats/ Bird 
Low $1+ Rats/Bird 




Patricia Central District 
Registered Trapline Areas 



- 44 - 



Plan Showing Waterfowl 
Concentrations As Indicated 
By Rat Trap Losses 

High Is 20 Rats/Bird 
111 Med. 21s 50 Rats/Bird 
Low 51- Rats/Bird 




"Oshabur gh 



Sioux Arm. 



Auden 



Nakina 



- 45 - 



THE PURPOSE AND MEANING OF ENFORCEMENT * 



by 
E. L. Skuce 



Abstract 



The writer points out that enforcement is not merely 
the apprehending of someone who disobeys legislation 
intended to further a wildlife management programme 
but the process of encouraging people to carry out 
conservation plans and policies for the benefit of all. 
In order to teach people the moral attractiveness, 
virtues and innate benefits of the law the following 
definite plan of action was suggested? 

lo Through research it must be assured that the 

programmes are wise and in the best interest of 
conservation. 

2. We must be sure that the vast majority of the people 
understand the reasons why the laws and regulations 
have been made. 

3. We must have educational programmes to keep the 
people informed of the progress being made and the 
benefits being enjoyed because of the laws and 
regulations in effect. 

r 

4. We must place before Justice persons who distrupt 
the plan and endeavor to have the violators under- 
stand fully the necessity for the law. 



Enforcement of conservation legislation means much more than 
the processes of justice after the law has been broken. It includes 
a responsibility of the scientists, administrators, and all officers 
to develop an atmosphere of persuasion to obey. When we begin mani- 
pulations of the populations of animals, plants, soil, and water for 
the best interest of man, rules and regulations usually are necessary. 

As enforcement officers we are required to assure that these 
measures are carried out, and in my opinion this is what should be 
termed enforcements the carrying out of conservation programmes. 

In the conservation of our natural resources there are many 
different obstacles but one which seems to bother us perhaps more 
than any other is the obstacle of people who have no regard for the 
regulations. These are the people who have not yet been convinced 
that adherence to the rules will benefit everyone. 



* Presented at the Northeast. Wildlife Conference, Montreal, January 
4-7, 1958. 



- 46 - 

This hindrance to our real job of managing a resource is 
one which we have been dealing with for a number of years. Some 
progress has been made toward cutting it down to a level at which 
at least the people who break the regulations do not change the 
results of our plans significantly. I suppose we might look upon 
this as a very worthwhile accomplishment and I wish that we could say 
this about all the obstacles that we encounter in wildlife management. 

However, with the increasing numbers of people seeking 
recreation through hunting and fishing, with the vast industries which 
are developing through the use of these natural resources, and with 
the many land uses which compete with wildlife, we find that more 
manipulation, more control, and more conservation measures are neces- 
sary. As a result, our programme of enforcement requires sincere 
study and research to keep up with programmes of management. 

In my opinion enforcement is not merely the apprehending 
of someone who disobeys legislation intended to further a wildlife 
management programme. I look upon it as the process of encouraging 
people to carry out conservation plans and policies for the benefit 
of all. Programmes of conservation cannot be fulfilled merely by 
making regulations. Granted, good laws and regulations come about 
only after long and earnest research and, at least in theory, after 
they have been requested by the general population, since they are 
passed through regular democratic processes of law-making. In 
practise many laws have little to do with programmes of conservation 
until their supporting regulations are made. As contained in the 
statues of a Province or State, the game and fisheries laws merely 
provide statements of penalties for non-compliance; unfortunately 
they do not inform us of the potential rewards for obedience to the 
legislation. 

There is also the additional thought that plans and policies 
as well as legislation are more or less useless unless they are known 
to all who may be concerned with them. 

A regulation may reads "No person shall kill an eagle, 
and any person who violates this rule shall be penalized not less 
that Ten Dollars.*' If the officer does not know why the eagle shall 
not be killed, he is in a poor position to enforce it intelligently. 
Similarly the offender, even if he knows the law, is less likely to 
obey it if he does not know the reason why it was put into effect. 
If these two opposing points of view could be aligned, we would not 
hear as frequently as we do now, the statement from a game and fishe- 
ries enforcement officer; "I don't make the law, I only enforce it." 
In this example it might well be that the offender would be fined for 
breaking the legislation and the officer could be said to have done 
his part, but is this truly the most desirable course of events? An 
officer should never be in a position that he only looks for violators 
and he should realize that he will never bring about the cooperation 
of people simply by assisting in imposing penalties. 



- 47 - 

We often read news releases advising the people to obey the 
laws and avoid the fines. The press emphasizes the penalties that 
a law violator faces with headlines such as, "Angler Fined $100.00,*' 
followed with the story of his fishing gear being seized and all the 
trouble he is in, finally stating; "It is said that he took 100 
undersized speckled trout." This news tends to create a sympathy 
for the poor fellow who was unfortunate enough to be caught,, It does 
little to increase our knowledge of the actual damage done by the 
taking of 100 undersized trout. A headline "One Hundred Undersized 
Trout Killed, Conservation Programme Receives Setback, " followed 
with a story about fish propagation and the remark, "It is said the 
trout were all killed by one angler" would do more to assist the 
conservation plan. •» 

A child may be told not to pull the cat 9 s tail because of 
the danger of being scratched. Very likely the cat ? s tail will be 
pulled, however, and possibly the child will be scratched. The child 
may be wiser, but more likely the cat ? s tail will be pulled again in 
a more abrupt manner in such a way as to avoid the scratch with the 
result that the cat will be hurt even more than previously. If the 
child had been taught why it should refrain from hurting the kitten, 
I am sure there would have been better results. 

If we are to teach people in our area the necessity for 
management and the benefits of assisting in conservation programmes, 
we must carefully teach the various regulations and more particularly 
the reasons why they are necessary. 

We should not endeavor to place the whole responsibility on 
a person who pleads he did not know the law by telling him ignorance 
of the law is no excuse. A plea of ignorance should be a signal to 
us that our teaching has not reached everyone. 

The Manager who insists on discipline according to the book 
and refuses to hear other views, provokes dissention. We must teach 
the moral attractiveness, the virtues, the innate benefits of the 
law. This can only be accomplished by a definite plan of action. 

First •- We must assure through research that the programmes are wise 
and in the best interest of conservation. 

Second - In order to eliminate the desire to disobey after the laws 
and regulations have been made, we must be sure that the 
vast majority of the people understand the reasons why they 
were established. 

Enforcement must commence with these two foremost parts 
of our conservation programme. Enforcement must be carefully 
mixed with all other ingredients of the whole programme. It 
cannot be merely a clause or a postscript added to the 
management plans, like a penalty clause attached to a regula- 
tion. 



- 43 - 

Third - We must have education programmes to keep the people informed 
of the progress being made and the benefits that are being 
enjoyed because of the laws and regulations in effect. 

Managers must continue research and the programmes and 
policies must stand the tests of use. The removal of outdated 
measures is very important. For example, we might provide 
a quota of ten beaver to a trapper and when the population of 
beaver increases to hundreds on his trapline, it may no 
longer be reasonable to have such a regulation In such a 
case it should be removed promptly. Again, it may be wise 
to provide some type of game sanctuary but if the area even- 
tually falls within the limits of a city, the days of the 
sanctuary's usefulness will have been outlived and the regula- 
tions concerning it should be removed. Too often our laws 
are not up-to-date with the progress of our research programme. 
This certainly does not encourage good enforcement. The people 
concerned and the officers who must enforce the laws lose 
respect for the legislation. 

Fourth - We must place before Justice persons who disrupt the plan, 
endeavoring to have them realize the reason for the law, and 
if possible we should endeavor to win their respect to such 
a degree that they will come back to assist with the conser- 
vation plan. 

We cannot suggest any reduction in the necessity of 
applying penalties at certain times. ' This is still, and 
probably always will be, an important phase of enforcement 
and therefore of conservation measures. However, we must" 
try to reduce the numbers of people who disobey because of 
lack of interest or lack of understanding. 

For example, commercial fishing regulations may provide 
that only a certain size of mesh of gill nets may be used. 
This regulation will doubtless have been made in order that 
fish of certain sizes and year classes would not be taken 
in the year's operation, so that the species will survive 
and propagate. The operator who has been advised only of the 
penalty for non-compliance may decide to take the chance 
and break the law c In doing so he may well upset the program- 
me and damage the entire industry. In sucha case there is every 
necessity of applying suitable penalties to the offender. On 
the other hand, with proper understanding the innate benefits 
of the regulations, many people would take great pains not 
to break the rules which, in the final analysis, have been 
enacted for their own benefit. 

Penalty must not be the first application in our enforce- 
ment programme; neither shall it be the last. We should 
continue our efforts to win the cooperation of the violators 
by having them understand fully the necessity for the rule. 



- 49 - 

The fifth step in our plan of action in enforcement would 
be a review of the four stages just outlined? 

1. Was the research good? 

2. Were the people properly informed? 

3. Did we advise the people of the progress made as well as the 
difficulties encountered? 

4. Was justice properly administered? 

These reviews will assist in deciding where our efforts 
should be increased or decreased. Too much emphasis on one sector 
at the expense of the other may be dangerous. Reviews will show up 
the short-comings and the weaknesses in our plans and regulations 
and we shall be in a better position to find support for the conserva- 
tion measures in effect, if they are sound. 

So, with all of this, it is evident that enforcement must 
become something of a science. Our plan of action and teachings must 
be reflected in the behaviour and sportsmanship of the people toward 
conservation. Their actions and attitudes will show whether they 
have gained full knowledge of the need of conservation plans, or 
whether the laws in conservation of fish and wildlife are only con- 
sidered wise when an officer is near and mean little when his back 
is turned. 

In this paper there were endeavors to provide definitions 
for enforcement of conservation measures; 

1. Insuring the fulfillment of conservation plans. 

2. Bringing about a will of the people to carry out conservation 
plans. 

3. Management plus support implies enforcement (M + S -)E.) 

Of course, management minus support implies poor enforcement 
(M - S 4 PoE.) . 

Another definition of enforcement I have heard was 
"Compelling obedience of the rules." This definition has something 
that seems unsuitable for enforcement of conservation measures. It 
is difficult to say we will compel . However, compel could be said 
to mean drive, therefore, if we wish we could have the fourth defini- 
tion: 

4» Organized drive toward obedience of the rule. 



- 50 - 



It has been emphasized that the drive toward obedience must 
include a programme of persuasion by education,, Education to bring 
about good enforcement must commence with our research and the 
people must be carried along in every stage of our plan of action,. 
Conservation will then be the people's business,. 

Thus, in making our plans for enforcement it is necessary 
to consider the fact that compelling obedience to the rules is 
incomplete and temporary; whereas obedience developed as an outgrowth 
of the natural moral tendency to do the right thing is complete and 
lasting - enforcement by will rather than by compulsion. 



- 51 - 

LAKE TROUT SPAWNING SURVEY 
HOLLOW LAKE, PARRY SOUND DISTRICT, 1959 

by 
Wm<, Ellerington and C. A. Rettie 

Abstract 

In order to study the effects of water draw-downs 
during the fall and winter on lake trout reproduction, 
a survey was made in Hollow (Kawagama) Lake, Haliburton 
County. The study showed that ( 1) lake trout commenced 
their spawning run on October 22 (2) spawning occurred 
in depths of from six inches to a least four feet, 
(3) spawn was heaviest between two and three feet, (4) 
any draw-down of Hollow Lake water after the spawning 
date would have an adverse effect on lake trout repro- 
duction, (5) the present agreement made with the Hydro- 
Electric Commission "To endeavour to hold the water 
from October 15th to March 15th as nearly stable as 
possible" should be very beneficial to lake trout 
reproduction,, 



Hollow or' Kawagama Lake is located in McClintock, Sherborne, 
Livingstone and Havelock Townships in the County of Haliburton,, It 
covers an area of approximately 7*765 acres and contains several large 
islands. The shoreline and substratum varies from sand to gravel, 
boulders and rock. The maximum depth recorded is 216 feet in depth. 
The outlet is the Hollow River draining into the Lake of Baysnear 
Dorset. This outlet is controlled by a dam under the supervision 
of the Ontario Hydro Commission. 

In the past this lake has supported a good lake trout 
sport fishery but from recent general reports from sportsmen the 
supply would appear to be dwindling and a growing concern has been 
expressed over the effects of water drawn down during the fall and 
winter on lake trout reproduction. Therefore a study was made in an 
effort to determine at what depths the spawning occurs so that some 
definite information would be available and remedial steps could be 
taken. At the same time successful negotiations were carried out 
with the Hydro Commission and an agreement was reached whereby the 
water level will be stabilized during the fall and winter periods. 

Several of the better spawning areas were kept under 
surveillance by Conservation Officer Wm. Ellerington as the spawning 
season approached and on October 14th, the first observations of lake 
trout were made but only of a few fish. 



- 52 - 

Observations on the night of October 17th revealed no fish 
on the spawning areas but 16 lake trout were taken in an experimental 
net set in 20 feet of water in front of the spawning area. Of these 
16 fish, 13 were male and near ripe, one male appeared spent, one 
female was nearly ripe and one immature female contained spawn the 
size of pinheadso Dredging was tried experimentally with an Eckraan 
dredge but was not very successful on the rocky bottom. Some bottom 
samples were obtained but contained no spawn. The spawning run was 
apparently just beginning. 

On October IS, in an effort to increase our knowledge of the 
spawning areas two lifelong residents of this lake were contacted and 
they willingly marked on our map all spawning beds known to them. 
Seventeen areas were marked as spawning grounds and when checked on 
October 19th. appeared to be potentially good spawning beds. Observa- 
tions during the same evening revealed no fish. 

No fish were observed again until October 22, when a few 
were sighted although several attempts were made to make observations. 
On many occasions the lake was choppy and fish may have been missed 
because of difficulty in handling the boat and wave action. It 
would appear that after an initial beginning on October 14th. the 
lake trout had returned to deep water to commence their spawning run 
again on October 22. 

From this date on fish were observed on several nights in 
varying depths of water from six inches to 11 feet. A water box was 
now used as an aid to underwater observations. On November 1st, an 
experimental gill net set for two hours at dusk in 10 9 -15* water in 
front of a spawning bed contained 11 lake trout. Ten of these fish 
were males and were ripe. The lone female taken was spent, suggesting 
that spawning was now taking place. Surface temperature was 49°« 

November 2nd. was taken up with a deer aging course at the 
Ranger School and Hollow Lake was too rough during the evening to 
make observations. On November 3rd, four areas were located where 
the rubble appeared to have been cleaned by spawning action. On 
these areas spawn could be readily washed out of the rubble by stirrin- 
with a paddle. An ordinary tinsmith's bilge pump was tried and 
successfully sucked up spawn from 6" to 4 feet depth. The bottom 
of the pump was placed on the rubble and a few strokes of the plunger 
was sufficient to bring up several (3-50) eggs from almost any 
location. These were collected by running the discharge from the 
pump over a screen. Lacking better equipment, perhaps a longer intake 
hose, we were not able to check depths greater than four feet. 

After this date because of the approaching deer season and 
pressure of other work this survey was discontinued, except for 
observations of the water levels by Ellerington. 



- 53, - 



Conclusions 



1« There are numerous good spawning areas for lake trout in Hollow 
Lake. 

2. Although actual sightings of lake trout were few it must be 
remembered that the weather generally was very bad making 
observations difficult. We believe there is still a good spawning 
population of lake trout left in Hollow Lake. 

3. The Lake level this October was 7.5 feet or approximately five feet 
below high water mark. Since then the level was increased to 11 
feet but is again being lowered. 

4c Spawning occurred this year as evident by the presence of spawn 
in depths from 6" to at least four feet. Some spawn was located 
almost at shore near the water surface level but may have been 
washed up by wave action. Spawn was heaviest between two and 
three feet. A few dead eggs were located almost at the surface, 
near the shore. 

5. Any draw-down of the Hollow Lake water after the spawning date 
would have an adverse effect on lake trout reproduction. Some 
spawn will undoubtedly perish from ice but a draw-down of several 
feet as has been experienced in some years would have drastic 
effects on the beds found and checked. 

6. The present agreement made by the Hydro-Electric Power Commission 
"to endeavour to hold the water from October 15th to March 15th as 
nearly stable as possible" should be very beneficial to lake trout 
reproduction. 

7. The area of some potential spawning ground would be increased if 
the lake was maintained at a higher level than was the situation 
this fall. Such considerations would, however, involve so many 
further complications such as dam-height, shoreline clearing, 
cottagers* rights, etc., as to render them highly impractical 

if not impossible at this time. 

8. We would recommend that the present re-stocking policy for this 
lake be continued as well as the present water level agreement. 
The spawn investigation should continue at least one more year and 
the creel census projects should be expanded. 

TABLE I - Fall and Winter Water Levels of Hollow Lake, 1953-1960* 



Oct. 15 Nov. 15 Dec. 15 Jan. 15 Feb. 15 Mar. 15 

1953/54 
1954/55 
1955/56 
1956/57 
1957/58 
1958/59 
1959/60 

* Water levels shown are those taken closest to the 15th. 
Water levels recorded by H.E.P.C. 



5.80 


4.80 


5.50 


6.30 


6.90 


7.70 


12.55 


10.05 


10.65 


10.75 


7.30 


5.30 


7.20 


9.00 


9.80 


9.50 


6.80 


4.70 


10.35 


9.60 


10.10 


10.40 


9.00 


6.00 


8.80 


10. 00 


12.10 


10.90 


6.30 


4.50 


9.75 


10.65 


9.30 


7.85 


7.00 


4.90 


7.45 


10.40 


10.70 


10.4 


- 


- 



- 54 - 
TABLE II - Summary of Lake Trout Age Classes, 1959* , 



Experimental Net Catch 

Age Group No. of Fish o Average Total Length (ins.) Range 

VI 20 16o5 (15. 4-13.5) 

VII 6 19.1 (13.0-19.6) 

VIII 1 22.0 



27 lake trout captured experimentally Oct. 17th, and Nov. 1/59 
using two gill nets (2| ts & 4^ n mesh). 



- 55 - 

TRAP- NET PROGRAM ON CROW (KAKAGI) LAKE, 
KENORA DISTRICT, 1959 

by 
C. F. Schenk 

Abstract 

A project was organized to test the feasibility of 
trap-net fishing in cold water lakes as a means of 
commercial exploitation. If the trap-nets would 
function satisfactorily, commercial species could be 
harvested while undersized and game fish could be 
returned to the water. Experimental nets were opera- 
ted from May 14 to July 9, 1959 in Crow (Kakagi) Lake, 
Kenora District. A conclusive lack of success was 
the unfortunate result achieved with trap-nets in this 
particular lake. A total of 3^4 fish, of which 271 
were whitefish and 41 were lake trout were caught in 
157 trap-net days of fishing. The placement of control 
gill-nets near the trap-net locations indicated that 
the trap-nets were not taking fish proportional to 
fish numbers present in the areas being investigated. 
No explanation presented itself to explain the poor 
results achieved with the traps. Recommendations 
regarding further experimental work with trap-nets 
are offered. 



Acknowledgment 

The daily records kept by Mr. G. Clifford, who 
worked on the project, made this report possible. His 
assistance in completing the map showing the net loca- 
tions is also acknowledged and was greatly appreciated. 



Introduction 

The success of the trap-net project on Lake of the Woods 
in the summer of 195& prompted the Kenora District to request a 
similar undertaking in a cold water lake the following summer. 

Several sizeable cold water lakes are present in the 
Kenora District and it is expected that biological surveys which are 
to be completed as soon as possible will indicate that some of these 
lakes support substantial whitefish populations. On the other hand 
it is also to be expected that certain of these bodies of water will 
contain worthwhile populations of game species. There could be, 
therefore, some difficulty in effecting a complete and publicly 
accepted utilization of all species, if gill net fishing is to be 
implemented as the means of commercial exploitation. 



- 56 - 

If trap nets would function satisfactorily in these lakes, 
commercial species could be harvested, while undersized and game 
fish could be returned to the water. Furthermore, trap nets might 
operate more efficiently than gill nets, thus enabling an operator 
to realize a particular quota in less time. As well, trap nets do 
not have to be lifted every day and fish taken by this method, if 
properly iced, command a better price since they arrive at market 
in better condition. 

Crow Lake was suggested as a promising lake for the project. 
It has been licensed to commercial fishing since 1954 and it was felt 
that this would enable us to compare trap-net results with previous 
gill-net operations. A project was thereby organized under the 
supervision of Mr. MacGillivray of Head Office to experiment with 
trap nets in Crow Lake. The experimental nets were operated from 
May 14 to July 9. 

Crow Lake 

Physical Properties 

Crow Lake is situated east of and adjoining Highway 70, 
about eight miles north of the village of Nestor Falls. It covers 
an area of 37.$ square miles and drains north-west through Cedartree, 
Caviar and Dogpaw Lakes and thence into Regina Bay, which in connec- 
ted to Whitefish Bay, part of Lake of the Woods. 

The lake is extremely irregular in outline and is traversed 
by a series of island chains which run in a SW-NE direction. There 
are many small bays which are sheltered by steep rock cliffs. 

Water depths in the lake range up to 185 feet. Water 
temperatures taken at a location where the water was SB feet in depth 
on June 10, 1959* ranged from a surface temperature of 6l°F to a 
bottom temperature of 44°F. At the spot where these temperatures were 
taken, a thermocline existed between 20 and 30 feet, with a tempera- 
ture change of 10° occurring within this stratum. 

The water in this lake is very clear and relatively infer- 
tile, judging by the lack of suspended organic matter. 

B iological Properties 

Crow Lake is known to contain whitefish, lake trout, ling, 
common white suckers, smallmouth bass, maskinonge, pike, small ciscos 
and a few pickerel. 

On the basis of lake surveys conducted in 1954> substantial 
whitefish and lake trout populations were considered to be present 
(Fraser, 1954). During the last four-year period, the average annual 
commercial catch of whitefish on Crow Lake has approximated 30,000 
pounds. An annual quota of 4*000 pounds of lake trout has constantly 
been in effect since the commencement of commercial fishing to protect 
this game fish resource from excessive commercial exploitation. 



- 57 - 



Methods and Equipment 



Three trap nets were used during the experiment, all of 
them being sixteen foot downhaul traps. The twine of one net was 
constructed of cotton, while the other two nets were made of nylon 
twine. 

The sides of the cribs in all three nets were made of 2g" 
mesh and the leads were constructed of 6 i? mesh e The length of lead 
used varied with the set. 

Information provided by the single commercial fisherman on 
Crow Lake, who assisted in this project, was used extensively in 
selecting sites for the various trap-net sets. This fisherman was 
not fishing commercially with gill nets throughout the course of the 
experiment but, commencing on June 4th, he made experimental sets 
using small quantities of gill net near the trap-net locations for 
the purpose of evaluating the results being achieved with the traps. 

The cotton net (Net A) and one of the nylon nets (Net B) 
were moved twice during the project and the remaining nylon net was 
moved once. 

The locations of the various sets are indicated on the map 
on page $8. 

All lake trout caught during the experiment were fin- 
clipped and returned to the water. The right pectoral fin was clipped 
on trout taken in trap A, the left pectoral on those taken in trap 
B, and the right pelvic on those captured in trap C. This was done 
so that it would be possible to record the re-entry of fish into the 
traps. 

All other fish taken of marketable size were retained and 
sold, the profits realized being used to offset the expense of the 
project. 

Camp operators along the lake were requested to be on the 
watch for marked trout. A comprehensive creel census was under- 
taken throughout the month of June in the event that information 
concerning movements of the marked trout, and an estimate of the rate 
of exploitation that the lake trout population received through 
angling, might be gained. Basic management information concerning 
angling success was also to be gained through the implementation of 
this census work. 

Results 

Table I indicates the extremely disappointing results that 
were achieved with trap nets in this particular lake. 



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- 59 - 

The trap-net crew are to be commended on their dedication to their 
task in the face of repeatedly discouraging returns. The traps were 
checked time and again in the hope that some explanation of the lack 
of success might be forthcoming. Also, the nets were moved several 
tines in order that various water depths would be tested^ sets were 
made as deeply as could possibly be undertaken with this type of net 
($6 feet at the crib). 

The eight trap-net sets collectively fished a total of 
156 days. Two hundred and seventy-one whitefish were caught through- 
out this period, not including those which gilled in the trap-net 
twine, of which there were an additional 142. 

Forty-one lake trout were caught in the traps, while an 
additional seventeen were gilled in the twine. 

Twenty ling, 34 white suckers and four maskinonge were 
also taken, while one set, namely Al, was successful in capturing 
14 smallmouth bass, four northern pike and one maskinonge were 
gilled in the traps in addition to the whitefish and lake trout just 
mentioned. 

Table II indicates the catches made in the gill nets 
which were used as checks against the traps. The gill-net sets, each 
consisting of one hundred yards of 42" mesh, set in close proximity 
to the trap nets, fished a total of 54 days. The amount of gill 
net used was purposely kept to a minimum in order that there would 
be little possibility of these control operations affecting the 
trap-net catches. The nets were set in such a manner that direct 
fish movements towards the trap-net leads would not be impeded. 

The number of whitefish caught in the 32 gill-net sets 
was 224; 119 lake trout were also caught, along with 4$ white suckers, 
five smallmouth bass and two ling. It is difficult to estimate what 
gill-net / trap-net ratio should be considered reasonable in a 
comparative evaluation of gill-net and trap-net performances. 
However, considering catch / effort statistics from other sources, 
the cost of purchasing equipment necessary for each type of fishing 
and the handling ease in working with each of these two types of 
gear, it is certain that considerably more than one hundred yards 
of gill net should be regarded as the counterpart of one trap-net. 

The gill-net sets in the immediate vicinities of the four 
trap-net sets A3, B3, CI and C2 certainly indicated that whitefish 
and trout were available in greater numbers than the results 
achieved with the traps would suggest. The 100-yard sets near B3 , 
CI and C2 in each case fished only about half as many days as the 
adjacent traps, but caught considerably more whitefish and lake trout 
at each of these locations (see tables 1 and 2), 

Considering a unit of effort as being 100 yards of gill 
net fishing for a 24-hour period, the collective success of all of 
the control gill nets throughout the survey is represented by an 
average of 4.15 whitefish per unit of effort and 2.13 lake trout per 



- 60 - 

unit of effort. The average trap net success, employing a unit of 
effort as being one trap net fishing for a 24-hour period, is 1.73 
whitefish per u.o.e. and .26 lake trout per u.o.e., In establishing 
this comparison, it is not intended to suppose that any degree of 
equality in the potential fishing efforts of these respective units 
of gear exists. The comparison is made to emphasize that some 
unknown factor was imminent which limited the success of the trap net 
operations. 

None of the trout which were fin-clipped re-entered the 
trap nets, nor were any of these marked fish caught in the gill nets 
used during the summer. No reductions in the lake trout catches in 
either of the two types of gear were therefore necessary. 

C reel Census Results 

Since only 41 lake trout were marked during the entire 
project, it is understandable that little could be learned concerning 
the angling exploitation rate. During the early part of June each 
year, before the trout descend to deeper water, the angling pressure 
is reasonably heavy on Crow Lake (by Kenora District standards) and 
it was hoped that enough fish would be marked during May to allow 
some estimates of population size and exploitation rate to be made 
from creel census work carried out during June. 

However, the creel census undertaken is valuable as a 
measurement of the quality of angling in Crow Lake;; it also illus- 
trates the change of emphasis from lake trout during the spring and 
early summer to other species during the warmer months, when 
trolling is the only practical method by which lake trout can be 
taken. There is little deep-water trolling done in any part of the 
Kenora District as is substantiated by the creel census presently 
under discussion. 

In order to properly assess lake trout availability to 
anglers, it is perhaps advisable to consider only the period preced- 
ing June 10, before any fishing effort was directed towards the 
catching of smallmouth bass. June 10 was the opening date for this 
latter species in the Kenora District. 

The results of the census with respect to lake trout are 
quite surprising! In the period between Kay 30 and June 9, both 
dates inclusive, 177 anglers fished a total of 1,240 hours and caught 
only 116 lake trout. The average time required to catch one trout, 
therefore, was 10.7 hours. Five pounds was the average weight of 
the trout caught. 

During the period from June 10 to June 21, 193 anglers 
fished a total 1,112 hours and caught 610 bass, 35 trout, 15 northern 
pike and two maskinonge. These combined efforts indicate a reward 
of approximately .5 fish per angling hour. Fifteen of the 193 
fishermen were fishing for lake trout only, which means that 17& 
anglers fished 1,024 hours and caught 610 bass, or .6 of a bass for 
each hour expended. The census clearly illustrates that more emphasis 
was placed on bass than on trout in the latter half of June. 



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- 62 - 
Synopsis 

A conclusive lack of success was the unfortunate result 
achieved with trap nets in Crow Lake during the summer of 1959. A 
total of 3^4 fish, of which 271 were whitefish and 41 were lake 
trout were caught in 157 trap-net days of fishing. 

The placement of control gill nets near the trap-net 
locations indicated that the trap nets were not taking fish propor- 
tional to fish numbers present in the areas being investigated. 

No explanation presented itself to explain the poor 
results achieved with the traps. The extreme clarity of the lake 
may have had something to do with the reluctance of fish to enter 
the traps, or, perhaps the whitefish and lake trout populations are 
limited enough to render returns insufficient when the fish are 
ranging widely during the summer period. Such theories are pure 
speculation and contribute little to the purpose of this report. 

Although the original intent of the creel census under- 
taken during June was nullified in view of the small number of 
fish marked, it is extremely enlightening to know that nearly 11 
hours of fishing per lake trout are required on Crow Lake. 

Whether this latter information reflects the instability 
of the Crow Lake trout population should be determined, if possible, 
through one or more tag recovery projects^ the presence of a 
commercial fishery on the lake and the accessibility and importance 
of the lake to local and non-resident anglers would suggest an 
imperative need for such a study. 

Recommendations 

1. All future applications for trap-net licences in the Kenora 
District should be rejected until the efforts and returns of 
presently licensed trap-net fishermen can be properly evaluated 
for at least a three-year period. 

2. No trap-net licence should be granted for any cold water lake 

in the Kenora District unless further experimental work with this 
gear suggests that its use is economically sound. 

3. The need for having a publicly acceptable type of commercial 
fishing in important sports fishing waters is great. On this 
account, it is recommended that further experimental work be 
carried out with trap-nets to provide additional information 
concerning the value of this type of gear. A cold water lake 
which lacks the clarity of Crow Lake might present a set of 
conditions which would yield more encouraging returns. 



- 63 - 



4. A trout marking programme, preferably with some sort of readily- 
observable tags, should be carried out on Crow Lake to provide 
an estimate of the exploitation rate of the lake trout popula- 
tion. This should be attempted to determine whether the present 
poor angling is related to the size and structure of the lake 
trout population or some other variable, such as the fish food 
crop 

Literature Cited 



Fraser, J„ 

1953c A biological survey of Crow (Kakagi) Lake. Unpublished 
file report, Kenora District. 



.. ...